What Is BIM?

Building Information Modeling (BIM) refers to the comprehensive procedure of generating and overseeing data for a constructed asset. Utilizing an intelligent model and facilitated by a cloud platform, BIM combines organized, multi-disciplinary data to create a digital portrayal of an asset throughout its entire lifecycle, encompassing planning, design, construction, and operations.

How can BIM benefit you?

BIM promotes collaboration and communication among all project stakeholders, including architects, engineers, contractors, and clients. It enables them to work together in a shared digital environment, reducing errors, conflicts, and misunderstandings.

Improve Collaboration

Clash Detection and Risk Mitigation

BIM allows for clash detection, which identifies potential conflicts or clashes between various building elements (e.g., plumbing, electrical, structural) during the design phase. Early detection of clashes helps prevent costly rework and reduces project risks.

Cost and Time Savings

BIM facilitates accurate quantity takeoffs and cost estimations, leading to better cost control throughout the project. It also streamlines construction processes, reducing project timelines and improving overall project efficiency.

Sustainable Design and Energy Efficiency

BIM enables energy analysis and simulation to optimize the building's energy performance and identify energy-saving opportunities. This promotes sustainable design and helps meet environmental standards.

Asset Management and Maintenance

BIM data can be used for facilities management during the building's operational phase. It provides valuable information about components, maintenance schedules, and performance data, enhancing asset management and prolonging the building's lifespan.

In summary, BIM offers a range of benefits, including improved collaboration, cost and time savings, better visualization, and enhanced sustainability. Its utilization can lead to more efficient and successful construction projects throughout their lifecycle.

BIM Standards

ISO 16739-1:2018 - 'Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)' for data sharing in construction and facility management industries.

ISO 12006-2:2015 - 'Building construction - Organization of information about construction works' - Framework for classification, with Uniclass 2015 as the UK BIM classification system.

ISO 23386:2020 - 'Building information modelling and other digital processes used in construction' - Methodology for describing, authoring, and maintaining properties in interconnected data dictionaries.

Information Structures


The UK BIM Framework, based on the ISO 19650 series (originating from the UK PAS 1192 series), defines the BIM process internationally. More information and free guidance resources are available on the UK BIM Framework website.

BIM Dimensions

The 3D dimension represents the building elements' physical geometry and spatial relationships in a digital model. It is the foundation of BIM, providing a realistic 3D visualisation of the project. Architects, engineers, and other stakeholders can interact with the model to understand the design and identify potential conflicts.

3D_Spatial Dimension

4D_Time Dimension

The 4D dimension adds the element of time to the 3D model. It involves associating scheduling and construction sequencing data with the model. This allows project managers and stakeholders to visualize the construction process over time, enabling better project planning, resource allocation, and construction phasing.

5D_Cost Dimension

The 5D dimension includes cost-related data integrated into the 3D and 4D model. This involves associating cost information, such as material prices, labor costs, and other expenses, with the model's elements. With 5D BIM, project teams can perform cost estimation, budgeting, and cost tracking throughout the construction process.

6D_Sustainability Dimension

Involves incorporating sustainability-related data into the BIM model, such as energy performance, environmental impacts, and life cycle analysis.

7D_Facility Management Dimension

Focuses on integrating building maintenance and facility management data into the BIM model, helping facility managers in asset management and maintenance planning.

BIM Level of Development(LOD)

Basic representation of the building elements with approximate sizes and shapes.

LOD 100: Conceptual Model

LOD 300: Specific Model

More specific representation of building elements with approximate sizes, shapes, and orientations.

LOD 200: Generic Model

Accurate representation of building elements with defined sizes, shapes, and precise positions.

LOD 400: Detailed Model

Precise and accurate representation of building elements including fabrication, assembly, and construction details.

LOD 500: As-Built Model

By defining LOD requirements, project teams can better manage expectations, understand the level of detail required at different stages, and avoid misunderstandings or discrepancies in the information exchanged throughout the project lifecycle. It ensures that BIM models align with the intended use and purpose at each phase, enabling efficient decision-making and minimizing errors during construction and facility management.

Model representing the actual constructed elements with precise and accurate information.

BIM Level of Information(LOI)

Basic information, often preliminary, with limited details and reliability.

LOI 100: Minimal Information

In the context of Building Information Modeling (BIM), "LOI" stands for "Level of Information." LOI is a related but distinct concept from LOD (Level of Development/Detail). While LOD specifies the degree of completeness and accuracy of the model's geometry, LOI focuses on the amount and quality of non-graphical information associated with the BIM elements.

LOI defines the level of detail and reliability of the non-graphical data, such as specifications, performance attributes, material properties, and other descriptive information linked to the BIM objects. It ensures that the information attached to each building element is appropriate for its intended use and purpose throughout the project lifecycle.

Similar to LOD, LOI is also commonly represented using numerical values or categories, indicating the level of information attached to the BIM elements. Here is a general representation of LOI levels:

LOI 200: General Information

More specific information with moderate details and reliability.

LOI 300: Specific Information

Detailed and reliable information associated with the BIM elements.

LOI 400: Comprehensive Information

Extensive and highly accurate information, typically suitable for construction and facility management purposes.

LOI 500: As-Built Information

Information reflecting the actual constructed elements, including verified data and documentation.

By defining LOI requirements, stakeholders can ensure that the non-graphical data in the BIM model aligns with the intended use and purpose at different stages of the project. It aids in facilitating effective decision-making, asset management, and facility operation by providing the necessary information to support those processes. Together with LOD, LOI forms a crucial part of BIM execution planning and enhances the overall usefulness of BIM models in construction and facility management projects.